The Armistice and after

October 1st to November 30th 1918, the lead-in to Armistice Day and then later to the liberation of Brussels. The Account of Captain Bryan Evers Sharwood-Smith 48 Squadron RAF (19 years old)

We had been asked to look out for a bomber squadron during our patrol and to help them if they were attacked on their way back from a raid. We saw the returning bombers as we reached the lines. They were being harried and savaged by swarms of enemy fighters, between thirty and forty in number. It was not a pretty sight. Two bombers spinning down out of control, another and two Fokkers in flames. We dived down towards them and the flight was broken up in the ensuing flurry. Other British fighters soon joined in and the enemy dropped away towards their own aerodromes. When we reformed, the flight commander was no longer with us. No one had seen what had happened. Later we learned that he had crashed and been taken prisoner. Beck had died of wounds. So, it was with no great joy that I took over in acting charge of a flight that I was to lead for many more months. I continued with this role until the war ended, and then as part of the allied occupation force on the Rhine and finally as we moved to the Indian Frontier.

Our daily round continued much as before, though we now carried out patrols, each flight commander leading the squadron in turn. Our normal objectives lay far beyond the lines and the opposition adjusted their tactics accordingly. They massed in superior force above and behind the patrol and attacked the rear machines or dived vertically, straight through the formation, to break it up and pick off the stragglers. In fact, they were looking for just the sort of straggler that I had been, in my inexperience, nine months earlier. Now and again we became more fortunate as we became ourselves the hunters. My new observer was Sergeant Perkin, a young, stolid and reliable Midlander from Birmingham. We were well suited to each other and I felt quite confident with him behind me.

We had become a very tired squadron…but…if we were asked to bomb Tournai, we bombed Tournai, whatever the opposition and, if photographs were required of Oudenarde, those photographs would be taken. Park’s calm and decisive personality held us together and we battled on stoically. The Mess was quieter now at night but there was never the lack of a cheerful grin nor a readiness to throw a party. Usually we shared these evenings with 206 Bomber Squadron who we often escorted on long flights and more distant raids.


By now the war on the ground was going all our way and on October 23rd we flew forward to take over our first abandoned German airfield. It was at Rekkem, a Flemish village just across the Belgian Border near Menin, well beyond the shell stricken mud and morass of the three year old battlefield in front of Ypres. The retreating enemy had left an imaginatively mean selection of booby traps behind them. As I took over our new hangar and quarters in company with my flight sergeant we were both very relieved that nothing blew up in our faces. Others were not so lucky.

Our sleeping quarters had been stripped of everything of value, so we made ourselves comfortable by salvaging furniture and fittings from the shell shattered cottages nearby. These had all been enemy billets and their former occupants had left them filthy and louse ridden, demonstrating, for good measure, the peculiar quality of their humour by defaecating in drawers and on mattresses.

By the beginning of November, the British Divisions ahead of us were advancing rapidly against sporadic though sometimes determined resistance. In the air although only occasionally molested, we were always on the alert as. Now and again, groups of two or three Fokkers, aggressive to the end, would dive out of the sun, flying onto and through us, guns spitting viciously

On November 10th, when we were leaving the Mess after dinner, a motor cyclist dispatch rider drove up to the office. A few minutes later the CO called us together to tell us that an Armistice had been signed. It would come into operation at eleven o’clock the following morning. He added the not so welcome piece of information that my flight would carry out its line patrol from ten-thirty, as already arranged. Wild festivities followed and some of us, now looking back, in a blur of memories, went out to visit neighbouring squadrons. Our own Mess had been drunk dry.


At ten-thirty next morning I was over the line on the far side of the ScheIdt with a slightly thick head and no companions for we had come through some heavy patches of cloud and the two new pilots who should have been with me had lost contact. As eleven o’clock drew near I found myself over the French speaking part of Belgium, between the ancient town of Ath and the City of Tournai. The moment that the minute hand of the clock in my cockpit touched the hour I contentedly fired eleven single shots on my Vickers machine gun, before treating myself and anyone who might have been watching to a valedictory ‘loop’ and returned home.

We took some time to adjust ourselves to the sudden change in our lives. We had risen each morning day after day, week after week and month after month to what, though we did not let our minds dwell upon it, might have been our last patrol. We found it difficult to realise that it was all over.

From Rekkem we found some transport and paid a couple of evening visits to Lille. Before the Germans had moved out a few days earlier we had decided to put on a show of strength, which amounted to my leading the Flight over the city at roof top level. There had been many thousands of people in the streets waving and cheering, but every single one seemed to be clothed in black. Our first impressions were not altered as we drove in along the greasy cobbled streets. It was a sad city. For four years the inhabitants had lived within sound of the guns, awaiting the relieving armies that never seemed to come any closer. Not so Brussels, the main German leave centre on the Northern front. I determined to be the first British pilot to land there, if I could. My first attempt on November 22nd failed because two other roaming Bristols from another flight, spotted my flight commanders streamers and attached themselves, despite my attempts to shake them off. Two days later I took Allen, my South African deputy leader, in the observers seat and tried again. This time we flew at ground level the whole way, digressing to inspect the field of Waterloo, a battle that had always fascinated me. I had last visited it with my father when I was a boy of twelve years old.

From Waterloo we slipped into Evers, my family namesake and the Brussels airfield, to find that we had just lost the race to get there first; three Sopwith Snipes were just taking off. As we wandered round inspecting the lines of abandoned German aircraft, a young Belgian Air Force officer called across to us, testing our French.
‘’Vous connaissez quelqu’un à Bruxelles, d’you know anyone in Brussels?’’
‘’Non pas un seul, not a soul!’’
‘’Je voudrais vous inviter à déjeuner avec ma famille, come to lunch with the family then.’’
There was no room in their car but there was a tram service that would take us into the heart of the city. Indeed, it was a warm-hearted offer from a family only just re-united with their son after four years of anxious separation. The Dubosts lived in a lovely house in the Avenue des Beaux Arts. Monsieur Dubost senior, we gathered, was a Senator and in celebration of the Armistice Madame had arranged a big family occasion. It was impossible not to sense the heart beating a bit faster as we noticed the arresting charm of the Dubost daughters and their female cousins, who were after all, of our generation. Afterwards we wandered through the streets, to be at once surrounded by dancing crowds of excited young people. The men shook us by the hand, the girls embraced us and showered us with flowers. Delighted, but exhausted, by the warmth of our welcome, we sought refuge in a cafe in search of tea. But time had passed quickly and we suddenly realised that returning to Rekkem before nightfall would be difficult,

Our apprehensions were only too well founded but, by racing back at tree top level in the gathering darkness, we reached home just in time to land while we could just still see. Night flying airfields alone had flare paths and, in any case, we were not trained in night landing.

The RAF is a hundred years old.


The memories of that time from a draft account by Bryan Evers Sharwood-Smith. It is an extract from ‘Away Before Dawn’ – a book that I am working on for possible future publication.

My first combat was typical of what could happen to the very young and innocent. We were low and some miles over enemy territory, when my flight commander suddenly dived steeply, the remaining four machines of the flight following close behind. Soon the white tracer began to flash from his gun. ‘Houthulst Forest’ lay beneath us and I thought, if I thought at all, that he was firing into one of the camouflaged German encampments below. This was utterly exhilarating. I had not fired in anger before so I opened up, holding my machine in a dive until I had nearly expended a fully loaded ammunition drum. By this time the rest of the Flight had pulled out and turned for home, and frankly, even I was aware that we were too low down for prolonged heroics. When we landed I was at first severely reproved by my Flight Commander.
‘Never lag behind like that again!’
But then he added, ‘
That was quite a good show though, d’you think you hit ‘im?’

I had not realised that we had been diving on a German two-seater. True, I had a fleeting impression of a shadowy form flitting eastwards in the half light as I pulled out of my dive, but no more than that. German aircraft, unlike our own, were heavily camouflaged.

Months later, by which time I was much more battle-wise, a novice observer was to sit inert behind me during a brief flurry with a more numerous enemy patrol. He was in complete ignorance that anything untoward was happening. Indeed, he mentioned later that he had been feeling cold and miserable and thought that we were on our way home. His carelessness might have cost us our lives but, remembering my own early self, I repressed my wrath.

I was happy enough in 29, but as the CO realised full well, there was concern about my life expectancy. It was short enough for any front-line pilot, but my chances of survival were beginning to look very bleak. While the days slipped by I was simply not learning nearly fast enough. The CO thought that I would be safer on bombers and he arranged for my transfer to 57 squadron, flying DH4’s. But I was not safer on bombers. I disliked the great cumbrous things. Twice, owing to engine failure, I was forced to crash land on broken ground. Later still I was caught napping by a formation of Albatross Scouts and, though we shot down the leader, forcing him into an uncontrolled dive, our machine was riddled, and my observer was wounded in both hands, a bullet taking away both the foresight and the backsight of his Lewis gun. We got home with difficulty.

After four months in France I was sent home for a rest. My CO recorded depressingly that I was unlikely to make an ‘efficient’ pilot. I did not accept this and asked that I be posted for further training with fighters. My request was granted, and after my leave, I went to a training unit at Port Meadow near Oxford to fly Bristol fighters . There had been a squadron of these two-seater fighters operating from the same aerodrome from which I was flying bombers, and I had often admired them enviously as they roared overhead after take-off, their sleek snouts thrusting aggressively skywards.

During my leave from France two events took place of considerable importance. The first was the 21st March ‘Great Spring Offensive’, the German Army’s final attempt to end the war at least on their terms, if not with total victory. The Russians had recently surrendered releasing a massive force of German men and artillery from the Northern Front. The plan was to aim the main thrust at the British section of the Western Front, from the Somme battlefields to the Channel ports, thus inflicting an allied defeat before the Americans could arrive in strength. It was only halted after a long British tactical retreat from those Somme battlefields, held at such a cost back in 1916. We again suffered heavy losses in men and guns, as did the Germans.

The second event was the demise of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service leading to the birth of the Royal Air Force on April 1st. Despite this bold initiative that created the world’s first dedicated national air force, the change was greeted with no great enthusiasm in either service, particularly in France. All manner of wild rumours circulated. One was that we would all have to share duties as orderly officer for our aerodromes, striding up and down officiously but uselessly with a telephone in one hand and file under an arm. Another by-product of the innovation was the new uniform. Air Force blue did not appear overseas for many months but the khaki variant with the leather peaked cap and navy type tunic came out with newly commissioned officers. As any squadron photograph of the time will show they were often to be worn in bizarre association with RFC uniform and with the army type uniform of seconded officers. This phenomenon was due to the degree of indulgence accorded us flying people. We also benefited from generous free transport, presumably in recognition of our dangerous occupation. This never seemed fair in our eyes. Already we were much more highly paid than the infantry who were faced daily with the mud and blood of the trenches and seemed to lead a far more unpleasant existence.

The young Angela: a eulogy to my little sister

Angela 5A day or so after Angela slipped away so peacefully with her two children, one on each side, Tania mentioned that the family had watched one of Angela’s favourite films about Africa.

All three of us children of Angela’s generation were conceived in Africa, and inevitably my mind went back to those very early days. That part of Northern Nigeria, once called the white man’s grave had become very much the white kid’s grave, European children being very vulnerable to the tropical diseases and climate. So in fact, like me, Angela was actually born in England, when our mother Joan was conveniently home on leave. Likewise Michael had been born in the cool climate of Cape Town when a wartime return to the UK was impossible.

So it was that shortly after June 8th 1949,   Michael and I were invited to help choose a name for our new sister. I can remember it very clearly as the name ‘Angela’ topped the short list. We were staying in the small attic flat at the top of our grandparents’ Victorian house in Leamington Spa. We had no home of our own in the UK. Michael was seven, I was three.

Five months after her birth Angela brought a second ray of sunshine to her brothers. And it was indeed literally ‘sunshine’. I should explain that the two of us, Angela’s brothers, had spent the previous three years in England, much of it boarded out. This was a Britain crippled by two World Wars and in the throes of post war austerity with severe winters, food, coal shortages – even starvation. Mother decided that, with the arrival of number three, family separations would end, for the time being at least. So, thanks to Angela, it was back to Nigeria with all the family together.

We flew out to Kano and then drove on to Sokoto, at the very edge of the Sahara. It was hot… up to 40 degrees C. or more in the day, and there was no air conditioning, no running water and only sand-fill toilets.  But it was our luxury to be together for the few months until Michael started at his new boarding school.

Our parents had thought that Sokoto was going to be it, and that Bryan would shortly retire…but no, fate in the form of promotion decided otherwise, and for Angela especially, a very different world began to open up.

First we moved to Kano, along with Timbuktu at the time still the great trading city of the Southern Sahara. In the cool of a Friday evening we could hear the Muezzin calling from the minaret of the great Mosque to bring the faithful to prayer.  Father became the senior Resident and we began for the first time to live in relative style as he took an increasing role in bringing Nigeria to independence. We began to welcome VIP’s including government ministers. The travel writer Joyce Packer wrote about us and Lady Edwina Mountbatten, not long from playing her part in bringing India to self rule also came to stay. There was a story that she had become very close to the Indian Prime minister Nehru… well, she wrote a letter that we still have at home, saying that it was in fact Angela that she fell in love with! To be strictly correct, Angela and Geoffrey – but by this time it was indeed the little girl, Angela now three years old, who was beginning to assert her personality.  Back in the UK on our leave my grandfather Mitchell quickly noticed the change. When Angela was in the room everyone knew about it. You might call it charisma; Grandad simply announced that the Angelic Host had arrived!

Before long we moved even further away from those early times of austerity. Father became Sir Bryan and mother, still only in her 30s, was Lady. We moved into Government House Kaduna, a kind of African-Edwardian official home, a long white building with upstairs bedrooms opening onto long verandas. For us children there were spiral staircases and mysterious corridors, for father and his aides – many rooms and offices. At the front of the house a long driveway led to a large portico for official cars, and then up a sweeping stairway into the main reception room. At the back, massive French windows led down more wide steps to the garden at the back. There were 70 acres of grounds, an ornamental garden at the front, at the back tennis courts, a bowling green and a 9 hole golf course put in by Bryan.

Angela settled in at once and began at the multicultural ‘Capital’ school, attracting many young friends both European and Nigerian.  She also began to express her love of animals – she rode the Arab horse Dugari with her mother, kept a flock of Muscovy ducks and a goat

Angela really thrived here in Kaduna and it was to be her home for another four years. Our half sister Sarah came to stay and took over as lady of the house while mother was away, father’s younger sister Iris came also.  After a few years Geoffrey was finally packed off to boarding school to join his brother, both of them just flying out for holidays. At Christmas the family was together again and we took the narrow gauge railway to the Hill Station, high up on the cool plateau at Jos. The Cornish mining community put on a traditional Christmas complete with a pantomime.

In fact Angela was to become a junior hostess, children, especially girls, being much loved in Nigeria. Angela would help serve food and drinks at receptions and learn the art of charming guests – local politicians, Prime ministers, the Sultan,  Emirs and the like. Finally there were the Royal visits, Princess Alexandria, the Queen mother and the Queen herself and Prince Philip. They were guests in what we children, the two boys watching newsreels and seeing tabloid centrespreads on school notice boards, considered naively to be ‘our house’… and Angela, as ever was there to welcome them. The Queen and Prince Philip even spent a few days in the Christmas Lodge at Jos.  Finally and sadly, a couple of years later, it was time for us all to leave Nigeria

Back in the UK and en route for Hythe to settle into our first UK home, we were delayed for a while in a railway waiting room. As a sign of changed times, Angela announced to the other passengers that ‘we are retired’ and proceeded to dance a Pas de Deux and other pieces from Swan Lake. Her now adolescent brothers shrank into the nearest corner anxious not to be seen as part of this eccentric family from Africa, with all their boxes and cases.

Hythe for all of us meant new friends and a quieter life. It also allowed Angela to see more of the relatives that Michael and I had come to know in our more frequent travels – Joan’s sister Barbara and our uncle and cousins…also aunts, uncles and cousins on the other side. Angela’s new school was a couple of doors up at the Huddleston’s where we came to know the family and where Angela made a lifelong friend in Rosie,  who was also later to be one of her bridesmaids.  As Rosie said a couple of days ago, Angela was ever rebellious as a child, but always fun to be with.

Angela went on to St Margaret’s School in Folkestone and then at thirteen years old, after the headmaster married the head girl, she was whistled away to spend the rest of her schooldays as a boarder at Ashford School, which incidentally she hated. In the holidays she could sometimes be found in the El Sombrero Coffee bar in Hythe, huddled away in the corner with Rosie and friends, jukebox playing in the corner. Michael and I were soon enough off to Scotland… to Universtiy.

Angela was always so proud of her brothers – something that we were flattered by, but always struggled to live up to. When she went to her smart Ladies Secretarial College in Dorset  she told her friends about us and suddenly we were being auctioned off, St Trinian’s like,  to a bunch of fortunately securely cloistered, girls – I have the letter from her at home  describing all this.

Angela went on to marry Colin and settle for a short time in a mews flat in Lancaster Gate. There was to be more travel and exotic locations as they lived for a while in Malta and Tunisa before starting their own family and settling down in Guilden Mordern.

For me, Angela was at her most inspiring as a mum to her own children, Tania and Alasdair. They meant the world to her. She was an intuitive mother; it all came so naturally to her as she always worked to give them the best possible start in life. She wanted so much to put just the same energy into being a grandmother.

Angela was also the perfect Auntie, often taking the care of small children, nephews and nieces at short notice. Speaking for our own family of three boys, she was wacky and utterly adorable, very much the favourite of the wider family.

Angela was above all an incredibly kind and generous person – someone who will always be remembered and very much loved.

‘No person is ever lost or forgotten’ – Hausa saying from Northern Nigeria

(Duniya ba ta mantawa da ma’abocin alheeri’)

Capital School Kaduna circa 1956
Angela at the Capital School, Kaduna – second row down second from left







I was in a railway carriage. On the seat opposite a lady was talking to me, ‘I’m your Mummy’. I had no idea who she was. What was a Mummy? I was two years old.

Exactly when did my remembering begin? Did it emerge gradually, perhaps over days or weeks, in the soft warmth of the womb, with the reassuring rhythm of mother’s beating heart? Or was it during the miracle of birth,   an unceremonious and rather shocking dump into the cold outside, along with a gush of water, blood and afterbirth.

Nothing is up for discussion without conscious awareness, and this had to wait.  I could have been a much more capable infant  at birth had it been delayed by, say, three months, ignoring for a moment, the other problems of a long gestation.  But we are bipedal creatures, we walk upright, and the mechanics of walking limit the mother’s pelvis in such a way that a baby’s head can only be so big at birth.  So, like any human newborn I could only function at the most basic level:  suckle, digest, excrete, sleep and grow.  I must have had no sense of  independent existence for months, and certainly no resonance in memory of the dramatic events of birth.

Other creatures need to get their wits about them much more quickly because danger lurks, even for the newborn. It’s all about fight or flight, mostly flight, and the parent can only protect their young for so long.  Also, those on all fours are never going to have a big head, so birth comes more easily. Memory has a different purpose for most non-human animals too.  Take our own pets, for example the wolf descendants. My sister’s closest and most constant companion is her short haired Lurcher. These are the canine world’s most predatory athletes. ‘I’ll call her Folly,’ my sister had announced five years ago, when she chose her puppy. My sister is not well but she can still have a laugh and she knew what people would say about her keeping a dog and she gave Folly her name accordingly.
One day I phoned to say that I would be visiting soon. ‘How’s Folly by the way?’
‘She spotted a rabbit in the woods this morning, went off like a rocket’.

I hadn’t been down for nearly six months but Folly knows me as soon as I open the door; it must be the way I look or my loopy walk. She has a sniff at knee level, but it’s only to see if there is anything new or different, for example do I have any other pets.  No one told her about me while I was away, or reminded her about my footsteps, or my face, or that I enjoy the company of dogs. She just remembers me the way I am and knows that we’re friends. It’s been like that since she was a puppy. Likewise she’ll remember where the rabbit came from that morning, and to avoid the Beech tree where she met a Rottweiler last week.

In my sister’s room the rattle of a trolley and knock on the door brings a smiling face swiftly followed by two cups of tea. ‘I asked her where she is from,’ says sister, referring to the bringer of tea. ‘I wondered if she was Fulani – but no, she’s from Somalia,’ Sister had hoped that she was Nigerian so that she could reminisce about her childhood and happier times.

‘What are your earliest memories then?’ I enquire. I like to check up on sister’s memory. It tells me how she is.
‘I wish I had been older when we left Nigeria,’ she says.
But I have heard this before.
‘I was only seven…if I had been older I would have remembered more.’

Sister is right in a way. At an even younger age,  two or three years old, memories are dream-like images that haven’t been coded into words, and are often soon forgotten.   To be retained, memories must be charged in some way, perhaps by excitement, a day out by the seaside or fear, danger, abandonment…something like that.

Do we keep the innocent qualities of our early memories? That’s the challenging question. Reminiscing is important, alone or maybe with another. Memories must be reinforced, but there’s also then a risk of Chinese whispers, the stories may grow and change with the retelling. I might even adopt my brother’s memory as my own, perhaps due to envy.  At best though, it seems that our memories reflect and resonate the stories of our lives.  How much emotional baggage do I have, how much blame, how much anger? It can go in the other direction too. Memories give pleasure. They recall good times gone by…and acts of kindness.

We had extraordinary childhoods, my brother sister and I, no better or worse than anyone else’s, but for the most part very different. We are lucky, we have letters, our parents wrote books and articles, left photographs and drawings. We can talk about our memories, compare notes. There are many witnesses too. In court it would be corroboration…there is plenty of corroboration for our memories.

Castel Benito

I was only four years old but the excitement of my first flight is still a vivid memory. We had been delayed by the ‘smog’, a debilitating form of winter air pollution that regularly brought post-war London to a standstill. It was still grey and drizzly when we eventually boarded our a BOAC York aircraft, a converted Lancaster bomber, for the fourteen hour flight. There would be two refuelling stops. The second, at Castel Benito near Tripoli, was to prepare for the long desert crossing to Kano.

By the time I was eight, and already a seasoned air passenger, I took a closer interest in the story of RAF Castel Benito. Just the Italian name was utterly captivating but it was the old wartime hangar and terminal building that most caught my attention. The jagged shell holes in the rusting corrugated doors were testament to the furious aerial bombardment that had taken place when the airfield had been captured in 1943, during the North African Desert campaign.

My brother and I often travelled together on what came to be called ‘the milk runs’. These were aerial shuttles that moved school children, often via Castel Benito, to and from the furthest reaches of Empire. It was an Empire that, in the early 1950s, still seemed reassuringly and unimaginably large. Mr Selby, our geography teacher, did not hesitate to remind us of this, once he had finished chatting in Welsh with Mrs Selby as she hovered around at the open classroom door.
‘You see, boys, the sun never sets on the Empire’.
We all waved our hands hoping to be asked to explain, ‘Please Sir, is it because the Empire stretches all the way from West to East and the sun is always shining somewhere’.
Mr Selby performed his classroom tour as he printed a smudgy black outline of the continents in our exercise books. We knew what was required and dutifully coloured in the relevant parts with our red crayon.
But in reality, as we soon enough discovered, the end of Empire was getting close and the focus for my parents was on development time that had been lost during the war. Schools, universities, hospitals, farms, transport, but especially politics and politicians all vied for available funds. The colonial officers all worked around the clock as Nigeria hurried to independence.

When I made my first ‘milk run’ it followed eight long months of family separation. Mostly I was at a boarding school, Milner Court, although Easter had been spent at another institution in Dorset. This was another prep school that operated as a kind of short-term foster home for colonial orphans. When the time finally arrived to leave for Nigeria my brother was there too. We couldn’t wait to climb onto the airport bus at Victoria station and get away, completely unconcerned at the prospect of the long unaccompanied journey that clearly worried my grandmother, as we exchanged goodbyes through the glass windows.

School was a very distant memory when we touched down at RAF Castel Benito a few hours later. Stirred from our sleep by the cabin staff we descended the lighted metal stairway to find ourselves on a tarmac apron in the desert under a canopy of stars and planets. Looking back as we made our way to the terminal building the four engined C4 Argonaut airliner was an impressive sight as the Union Flag fluttered from a small mast at the open cockpit window. It was truly a ship of the skies. Lit up by yellow interior lights the cabin crew could be seen through rectangular windows as they hurried to clean up for the final leg to Kano. Service trucks and a tanker were already clustered around the undercarriage while an engineer on a metal ladder checked out one of the four piston engines that would soon power us across more than fifteen hundred miles of desert. By this time, we had already become the most expert of aeronautical spotters. The advantages of a pressurised cabin and the details of other aircraft powered by Rolls Royce Merlin engines could readily be explained to a bemused adult…and at some length.

Inside the flood-lit hangar there was a makeshift civilian air terminal. Groups of cane chairs and tables were arranged on the terrace in front of a single storey inner building containing a bar and some offices. Large three bladed fans, suspended from the ceiling, swished lazily over a sweaty barman who served us bottles of iced cola in exchange for our BOAC transit cards.

Waiting for our aircraft to be refuelled we picked up some friends and wandered out to explore the limits of the passenger area. The Libyan policemen were the main quarry as they guarded the boundary. We gathered round them, fascinated by their snappy Italian serge uniforms, the high peaked caps and the shades tucked into top pockets – not to mention their long shiny boots and white gaiters. Most fascinating of all, and slightly sinister too, was the brown leather hand gun holster, the butt of the weapon just visible where a looped cord attached it to a leather belt Once it became clear that we were not showing sufficient respect we were angrily waved back to the terminal to await our call.

A few hours later, soon after dawn had broken over the oasis town of Tamanrasset and the more distant and craggy Ahaggar mountains, as they jutted through the morning haze, we began our descent for Kano airport.

The Resident in Kano, the senior colonial officer, was Tim Johnston. Mr Johnston had been a fighter pilot during the war when he was heavily involved in the heroic defence of Malta, an awesome story for an eight year old. He and his wife Berrice met us at the airport and took us the house that had been our home only a couple of years earlier, so it was strange to be back. On our parents’ instructions we were expected to sleep for the rest of the morning before transferring to a four seater Auster aircraft for the flight down to Kaduna. My parents had clearly forgotten that the sheer excitement of travelling meant that children of our ages would never simply fall asleep according to adult convenience and we chatted away for three hours until it was time to return to the airport for the one hour flight to our home at Kaduna.

In those days children would be passed around between relatives, friends and institutions rather like packages in a private mail service. We had no concept of what it meant to the lives of those kind friends and relatives that had to feed us, clean us and put us on trains, coaches and aircraft as we shuttled around Europe and Africa. It must have caused them some inconvenience but they hardly ever complained…so we generally remained blissfully unaware!

The featured image is of a BOAC Argonaut parked in front of the airport building at Kano in the 1950s

Post Script: The Johnstons’ story has been told by their daughter Carolyn in a remarkable collection of letters and diary entries. When we visited the Johnstons in Kano we were told all about their daughter Carolyn, but we never seemed to meet. When Carolyn was in Nigeria we were back in the UK, and vice versa. It was to be a very long time before we did meet. In fact it was in Edinburgh not very long after my own return to Northern Nigeria in 2010.
‘Harmattan, A Wind of Change’ by Carolyn Johnston. The Radcliffe Press 2010.
ISBN 978 1 84885 143 6

A WC for the Sokoto Residency

Geoffrey aged 4 on a hot afternoon at Sokoto Residency

I sat on the low wall of our shady verandah and watched curiously as an open pickup truck arrived. Once the clouds of sand and dust had settled I could see the new delivery more clearly. The bright, white porcelain W.C. faced imperiously out to the rear of the pickup, as if reluctant to take a look it its new home.  So I went out to inspect it more closely.

‘’Put on your hat if you’re going into the sun, remember last time.’’ The ‘hat’ was a pith helmet, adult sized. I could just about peer out from under the wide brim after the hat was padded up with an old shirt. The previous week I had been hatless under the sun for only twenty minutes and the hot blistering sunburn on my face and arms had kept me awake crying for two nights.

The people, the Nigerians,  love to nurture their children, white children too, just as they do their own. But the place, Sokoto with its sub Saharan climate, the dust and flies,  was a different proposition. It was pitiless. By my fifth birthday I was old enough to know the truth and why I should always take care. It wasn’t just the sunburn. ‘’The missionaries’ children both died of dysentery,’’ my mother told me in her own matter of fact way. “They were the first European children to come here.’’

Before the arrival of this new water closet, things toilet-wise had been pretty basic…a privy at the back of the house, a plank with a hole and, several feet below, resting on the ground, a metal bucket. Some sand and a shovel were provided to cover the contents after each use. But the flies always buzzed around it anyway. And the flies spread the dysentery. A truck called each morning for the metal bucket. Any of the precious water was set aside as a spray to control the clouds of dust raised by cars and lorries on the laterite roads. The rest was kept for nearby farms, to fertilise the corn and yams.

The new WC and its big pipes and drains could do all this too. But most importantly, once it was working, there were no more flies.

Nigeria is an extraordinarily diverse and vibrant country. There are around 500 ethnic groups and many of these differ from each other culturally and linguistically to a much greater extent than equivalent European groups such as, say, Germans and Russians. On the comment that Nigerians love their children…I think that most visitors to Nigeria have the same experience and Nigerians would welcome the sentiment…however much it is a generalisation.

Marriages and children were to be preserved

Adapted from a piece written for Trevor Clark to include in his anthology ‘Was it only yesterday: the last generation of Nigeria’s Turawa’. Trevor asked me to summarise in 50 words what it meant to be a child in the colonial days, an impossible challenge.


Marriages and children were to be preserved, marriages from lengthy separations, children from the white kids’ grave.

Offspring, once bred, could be parked care of great-aunt, or home for colonial orphans.

Then there was change, heat dust and dysentery were the welcome price for family reunion, until…until it was time for a seven-year-old to grow up.

At home, pink gins were served among wicker chairs and evening chatter. But boarding school meant frozen milk, icy dorms, chilblains and the cut of the cane. Weekly letters sustained the sentence.

At last…time-out. There was elation at the airport, ‘Passengers for Tripoli, Kano, Lagos and Accra – follow the blue lights.’

In the bush on tour, beneath the Milky Way, I was only a raffia fence from the roar of a lion. One day, at Government House, father became ‘His Excellency’, and mother was a glimpse of long white gloves and the swish of satin as she rushed to meet guests.

My friends were the servants, Ali and Alkali: they told me magical stories, taught me pidgin and Hausa. Now all is distant memories, books, pictures, photos, dusty files and letters from illustrious visitors.

Lagos touchdown, 3rd May 2010

Curiously, it was after a perfect touch-down by the British Airways 747 that the rush to the overhead lockers began. This was despite the cabin steward’s emphatic request to remain seated.  First one passenger had stood up and then others quickly followed as hand baggage and clothing were hurriedly pulled down and children were gathered. Down the aisle, between some curtains, I glimpsed families in the vibrant colours and patterns of traditional Nigerian dress as yet more passengers prepared to leave from the cabin ahead. Once the initial chaos had subsided, my neighbour folded away the laptop and papers that had occupied her for much the flight and leaned across, smiling broadly. ‘We Nigerians  must always be prepared’. She was amused by my bewilderment. ‘The first person to hurry may know something, so we must hurry too.’ As it turned out there was no emergency, unless it was the prospect of getting through the notorious customs and immigration at Murtala Muhammad International – and that was an obstacle course for which I was well prepared to wait.

Once the aircraft finally came to rest and the engines were shut down the few remaining passengers began to stir. It had been a long time since I had last stood on Nigerian soil. In fact the interval between this and my last visit would coincide almost exactly with Nigeria’s 50 years as an independent country. I had left as a young teenager, ready to move on to my own new world and to put those early years behind me.  Within a few years  I had married and begun a career in medicine before later travelling to many other parts of the world. Now, a few decades on,  there was a grown up family of our own, some of whom were living once again in Nigeria. They had offered me accommodation in Lagos and local knowledge and contacts in the North, often a dangerous place to visit. it made for a unique opportunity to discover something of contemporary Nigeria. But now I also wanted to try to understand the past, the story of my own early life and that of my parents.

As I slowly collected my belongings I reflected on the class system of modern air travel. Fifty years ago it had been a single tourist class for the ‘milk runs’, the special flights for children travelling out on holiday from UK boarding schools.  Our parents had been administrators, teachers, doctors, vets, forestry officers and engineers. They had all been dedicated to the cause of Nigerian independence in an empire very much at sunset. Now after half a century, the routine of multiple airline classes seemed to match the extravagance and waste of the modern world. In any case the London-Lagos route is said to be the world’s most expensive in terms of pounds sterling per mile travelled, so in that sense it’s really all luxury travel.

There were still signs of repose as we filed out of our cabin in ‘world traveller plus’. In the subdued lighting of ‘world club class’, rugs and pillows were scattered, blinds were still closed and seats were reclined to the horizontal. They had travelled in some comfort. Meanwhile, my friend with the laptop had already discovered why I was visiting Nigeria. ‘This is where the diplomats and business executives travel,’ she was eager to tell me. ‘Also there are people who have been in hospital in the UK – and last week we had loads of teenagers on Easter holiday from their boarding schools.’ Now that was an irony of the new age,  as several of these Nigerian kids would have been pupils at my old school.  ‘There are even more of them travelling in first class,’ she added. First class and  the upper deck, the ulitmate comfort zone, were discreetly and even more luxuriously out of sight.

The  man ahead of me  was a natty dresser – chinos, blue shirt, linen jacket, tablet computer in hand. He had been listening and joined the conversation.’ I’ve been away a long time too – I’m British-Nigerian,’ he explained. ‘I stupidly put ‘journalist’ on my visa application and its taken months to process – terrible.’ But then, as we approached the main exit of the aircraft, he abruptly  turned around to face all the remaining passengers. ‘Welcome to Nigeria,’ he announced with a broad smile. ‘The most difficult country in the world to enter.’